Breast cancer is treated in several ways. It depends on the kind of breast cancer and how far it has spread. People with breast cancer often get more than one kind of treatment. Surgery. An operation where doctors cut out cancer tissue. Chemotherapy: Using special medicines to shrink or kill the cancer cells. The drugs can be pills you take or medicines given in your veins, or sometimes both. Hormonal therapy: Blocks cancer cells from getting the hormones they need to grow. Biological therapy: Works with your body’s immune system to help it fight cancer cells or to control side effects from other cancer treatments. Radiation therapy: Using high-energy rays (similar to X-rays) to kill the cancer cells.
Cancer is a broad term for a class of diseases characterized by abnormal cells that grow and invade healthy cells in the body. Breast cancer starts in the cells of the breast as a group of cancer cells that can then invade surrounding tissues or spread (metastasize) to other areas of the body. Breast cancer is the most commonly diagnosed cancer in women and is the second leading cause of death among women. Early diagnosis of the disease plays a vital role in the treatment and outcomes of breast cancer. Screening for breast cancer is very important for early diagnosis.
Indications of breast cancer are the similar in men like women. Maximum of the men are not aware of this and the treatment of breast cancer males is mostly tardy as compared to females because of obliviousness. Major risk features of breast cancer that occur are during the premenopausal years, the rate of upsurge in occurrence is common everywhere in the world, roughly about 8%-9% per year, breastfeeding each kid for less than 6 months, and physical idleness, are each related to an predictable 3% of female breast cancer cases. Lifestyle factors including overweight and obesity, alcohol and certain work-related exposures also lead to breast cancer. There are many forms of cancer treatment. The types of treatment that you take depends on the nature of cancer you have and its severity. Some people with cancer will undergo only one treatment procedure. But most people have a blend of treatments, such as surgery with chemotherapy and/or radiation therapy. There are certain effective modes like immunotherapy, targeted therapy, or hormone therapy conducive for certain type of cancer
Cancer immunology shows the relationship between the immune system and the progression of cancer. The Basic mechanism of the immune system as it relates to cancer has been increasing rapidly. Although there is ample evidence for anti-tumour immune reactivity in humans, evidence for immunity against malignancy comes mostly from experimental studies with animals to prevent the progression of neoplastic tissue, the immune system identifies the transformed cells which is called Cancer immune surveillance. According to the Immune Surveillance Theory, cancer cells that arise in the body are eliminated by the immune system. However, due to impaired immune reactivity, cancer cells may escape destruction. This particular scientific session of the Breast Cancer Conference shall highlight immune therapy related to tumours.
The most sensitive test to detect breast cancer. 3D mammography is a screening and diagnostic breast imaging tool to improve the early detection of breast cancer. During the exam, an x-ray arm sweeps over the breast, taking multiple images in seconds. Images are displayed as a series of thin slices that can be viewed by our radiologists as individual images or in a dynamic interactive animation. Cyberknife is a non-invasive alternative to surgery for the treatment of both cancerous and non-cancerous tumors anywhere in the body.The treatment delivers beams of high dose radiation to tumors with extreme accuracy. Cyber Knife VSI is the world's only whole body radiosurgery system with unmatched accuracy and precision.
Cancer cells are very complex cells and it is challenging for clinicians to manage breast cancer therapy. Tumor cells are having different phenotypes and deregulated apoptotic and these characteristics are responsible for improper therapeutic response. For multidrug resistance events major role is played by membrane transporters, they are the cell’s first line of contact with anticancer drugs. So cell structure and biological properties of the cell leads to drug-resistant and lead to a decrease in the intracellular activity of drugs. Breast growth is regulated by the interaction between hormones and growth factors. Genetic changes in growth factor can lead to abnormalities. The immune system of host play a substantial role during breast cancer, breast cancer is a complex disease.
There are trillions of cells in the body. These cells have a tightly regulated cell cycle that controls their growth, maturity, division and death. During childhood normal cells divide faster to allow the person to grow. Once adulthood is reached the cells divide to replace worn-out cells and to repair injuries. This cell division and growth is controlled by the cellular blue print or DNA and genes that lie within the cell’s nucleus. Cancer begins when cells in a part of the body start to grow out of control. All types of cancer, irrespective of their origin, occur due to this disturbed growth of cells that leads to formation of tumours and lesions. In addition, the cancer cells possess some rogue like properties: They have longer life spans and instead of dying continue to grow and form new, abnormal cells Cancer cells can also invade other tissues. This is something that normal cells cannot do. This property is called metastasis. Cancer cells grow into tumours that are supplied by a new network of blood vessels. This is called angiogenesis and is unique in maintaining the blood supply and supply of nutrients to the cancer cells.
Mammography is specialized medical imaging that uses a low-dose x-ray system to see inside the breasts. A mammography exam, called a mammogram, aids in the early detection and diagnosis of breast diseases in women. An x-ray (radiograph) is a non-invasive medical test that helps physicians diagnose and treat medical conditions. Imaging with x-rays involves exposing a part of the body to a small dose of ionizing radiation to produce pictures of the inside of the body. X-rays are the oldest and most frequently used form of medical imaging. Three recent advances in mammography include digital mammography, computer-aided detection and breast tom synthesis. Digital mammography, also called full-field digital mammography (FFDM), is a mammography system in which the x-ray film is replaced by electronics that convert x-rays into mammographic pictures of the breast. These systems are similar to those found in digital cameras and their efficiency enables better pictures with a lower radiation dose. These images of the breast are transferred to a computer for review by the radiologist and for long term storage. The patient's experience during a digital mammogram is similar to having a conventional film mammogram. Computer-aided detection (CAD) systems search digitized mammographic images for abnormal areas of density, mass, or calcification that may indicate the presence of cancer. The CAD system highlights these areas on the images, alerting the radiologist to carefully assess this area.
Most blood cancers, also called hematologic cancers, start in the bone marrow, which is where blood is produced. Blood cancers occur when abnormal blood cells start growing out of control, interrupting the function of normal blood cells, which fight off infection and produce new blood cells. The three main types of blood cancer are leukaemia, lymphoma and myeloma: Leukaemia is a blood cancer that originates in the blood and bone marrow. It occurs when the body creates too many abnormal white blood cells and interferes with the bone marrow’s ability to make red blood cells and platelets. Non-Hodgkin lymphoma is a blood cancer that develops in the lymphatic system from cells called lymphocytes, a type of white blood cell that helps the body fight infections. Hodgkin lymphoma is a blood cancer that develops in the lymphatic system from cells called lymphocytes. Hodgkin lymphoma is characterized by the presence of an abnormal lymphocyte called the Reed-Sternberg cell. Multiple myeloma is a blood cancer that begins in the blood’s plasma cells, a type of white blood cell made in the bone marrow.
Treatment for blood cancer depends on the type of cancer, your age, how fast the cancer is progressing, where the cancer has spread and other factors. Some common blood cancer treatments include: Stem cell transplantation: A stem cell transplant infuses healthy blood-forming stem cells into the body. Stem cells may be collected from the bone marrow, circulating blood and umbilical cord blood. Chemotherapy: Chemotherapy uses anticancer drugs to interfere with and stop the growth of cancer cells in the body. Chemotherapy for blood cancer sometimes involves giving several drugs together in a set regimen. This treatment may also be given before a stem cell transplant. Radiation therapy: Radiation therapy may be used to destroy cancer cells or to relieve pain or discomfort. It may also be given before a stem cell transplant.
Blood cancers affect the production and function of your blood cells. Most of these cancers start in your bone marrow where blood is produced. Stem cells in your bone marrow mature and develop into three types of blood cells: red blood cells, white blood cells, or platelets. In most blood cancers, the normal blood cell development process is interrupted by uncontrolled growth of an abnormal type of blood cell. These abnormal blood cells, or cancerous cells, prevent your blood from performing many of its functions, like fighting off infections or preventing serious bleeding. There are three main types of blood cancers: Leukaemia, a type of cancer found in your blood and bone marrow, is caused by the rapid production of abnormal white blood cells. The high number of abnormal white blood cells are not able to fight infection, and they impair the ability of the bone marrow to produce red blood cells and platelets. Lymphoma is a type of blood cancer that affects the lymphatic system, which removes excess fluids from your body and produces immune cells. Lymphocytes are a type of white blood cell that fight infection. Abnormal lymphocytes become lymphoma cells, which multiply and collect in your lymph nodes and other tissues. Over time, these cancerous cells impair your immune system. Myeloma is a cancer of the plasma cells. Plasma cells are white blood cells that produce disease- and infection-fighting antibodies in your body. Myeloma cells prevent the normal production of antibodies, leaving your body's immune system weakened and susceptible to infection.
Blood cancer is a type of cancer that affects your blood cells. It starts in your bone marrow where blood cells form. Blood cancer affects the blood cells by not allowing them to function properly. This leads to issues like not being able to fight off germs that cause sickness or stop bleeding when you get a cut. There are three different types of cells in your blood: red blood cells, white blood cells and platelets. Blood cancer can affect any of these cells. Leukemia: This cancer causes white blood cells to produce rapidly and abnormally. These cells can't fight off infections, and they also prevent red blood cells and platelets from doing their jobs. Lymphoma: This cancer affects the part of the body that removes excess fluids and produces healthy white blood cells in the body. It turns normal white blood cells that fight infection — called lymphocytes — into abnormal lymphoma cells. They build up in your lymph nodes and affect your body's ability to fight off sickness. Myeloma: This cancer affects the plasma cells. Plasma is responsible for producing antibodies to fight off infections. Myeloma prevents this from happening, leaving you with a weakened immune system.